Endoscopic Diagnosis

Colonoscopy is a method that allows the surgeon to examine the rectum (the last 12-15 cm of the large intestine where it opens to the anus) and the inside of the large intestine.

What is Colonoscopy (Lower GIS)?

A colonoscopy is an exam used to detect changes or abnormalities in the large intestine (colon) and rectum. During a colonoscopy, a long, flexible tube (colonoscope) is inserted into the rectum. A tiny video camera at the tip of the tube allows the doctor to view the inside of the entire colon.

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Why it’s done

  • Screen for colon cancer
  • Look for polyps
  • Before and /or after a surgery
  • Investigate intestinal signs and symptoms
  • Follow-up of inflammatory diseases of the large intestine like ulcerative colitis and Crohn

How to prepare

The day before before the colonoscopy, it is recommended to avoid solid food completely. The aim of colonoscopy prep is to pass all the fecal matter from the area to be examined during the screening, so that there is nothing left to obstruct the view of the colonoscope. To aid the process of emptying the bowel, one will be prescribed a laxative product to take as part of the colonoscopy prep. In some cases, enemas may also be prescribed. Seek medical advice if you cannot clean out the bowel.

Patient should take their routine medication as normal. If you are taking vitamin E, painkillers, blood thinners, insulin drugs notify your surgeon. You should also talk to your doctor if you are under a dental treatment. He/she can recommend antibiotics before colonoscopy.

However, people undergoing a colonoscopy are usually given sedatives to help them relax and to ensure that they are comfortable during the colonoscopy. In all cases where sedatives are used, it is advisable to arrange for a friend or family member to accompany the person having the colonoscopy to and from the hospital.

in general, avoiding activities such as driving is recommended for a time after the use of sedatives.

What happens during colonoscopy?

The procedure is can be tolerated but you may feel bloated or pass gas for a few hours after the exam, as you clear the air from your colon. You’ll begin the exam lying on your side on the table. The doctor will insert a colonoscope into your rectum. The procedure generally takes 15-60 minutes.

Abnormal appearance of bowel

The doctor can take tissue samples (biopsies), remove polyps or other areas of abnormal tissue. Most polyps aren’t cancerous, but some can be precancerous. Polyps removed during colonoscopy are sent to a laboratory for analysis to determine whether they are cancerous, precancerous or noncancerous.

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After the procedure

Your surgeon will notify you immediately just after the procedure about what to do next.  or the next check. It is normal to feel abdominal cramping and gas. If your doctor finds one or two polyps less than 0.4 inch (1 centimeter) in diameter, he or she may recommend a repeat colonoscopy in five to 10 years, depending on your other risk factors for colon cancer.


What are the complications?

Colonoscopy and biopsy are safe when performed by surgeons who have had special training and are experienced in these endoscopic procedures. Complications are rare, but they can occur. They include bleeding from the site of a biopsy or polypectomy and a tear (perforation) through the lining of the bowel wall. Very rarely, blood transfusion is required for bleeding. In case of severe abdominal pain, fever, chills and severe bleeding from the rectum, call your doctor immediately.

What is Endoscopy (Upper GIS)?

Upper GI endoscopy is a procedure in which a doctor uses an endoscope, a flexible tube with a camera, to see the lining of your upper GI tract.

Why is Upper GIS Needed?

It is used to help find the cause of problems such as swallowing difficulties, unexplained vomiting, nausea, abdominal discomfort, and severe indigestion. It can detect signs of problems such as ulcers, gastric reflux, hiatal hernia, or blockages or narrowing of the upper GI tract.This procedure also more accurate than X-ray films for detecting inflammation, ulcers  and tumors of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum. Endoscopy can also detect early stages of some cancers by taking biopsies from suspicious areas.If it is necessary, your doctor can expand stenoses, remove polyps and foreign bodies remaining in the GIS.


What are the necessary preparations?

  • Stomach should be completely empty. Eating and drinking should be stopped at least eight hours before the procedure.
  • Medications may need to be adjusted. Tell your doctor about all your medications and allergies, especially if you are taking vitamin E, anti-inflammatory, blood thinners and insulin drugs.
  • Patients with heart or lung disease require special assistance.
  • The procedure mostly takes place under sedation. These drugs cause your reflexes to slow down.

What happend during the process?

Local anesthesia spray can be applied to your throat to peform the procedure. While you lying down to your side,  a tiny camera on the end of the endoscope lets your doctor examine your esophagus, stomach and the beginning of your small intestine. While stomach is inflated with air, the image quality can be improved.. The exam typically takes 10 to 60 minutes to complete. Most patients fall asleep while very few feel uncomfortable.


What to do after the procedure?

After an upper GI endoscopy, you can stay at the hospital for 1 to 2 hours after the procedure so the sedative can wear off. You may experience some mildly uncomfortable signs and symptoms such as bloating and gas, cramping and sore throat


Which complications can occur?

Overall endoscopy is safe however, the procedure does have a few potential complications, which may include perforation and bleeding.

Contact your surgeon immediately if you have swallowing difficulty, increased sore throat, chest pain, severe abdominal pain, fever or rectal bleeding.


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